Where Does The Fish Name ‘Carp’ Come From?

Above: common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

The original common carp was found in the inland delta of the Danube River about 2000 years ago, and was torpedo-shaped and golden-yellow in colour. It had two pairs of barbels and a mesh-like scale pattern. Although this fish was initially kept as an exploited captive, it was later maintained in large, specially built ponds by the Romans in south-central Europe (verified by the discovery of common carp remains in excavated settlements in the Danube delta area). As aquaculture became a profitable branch of agriculture, efforts were made to farm the animals, and the culture systems soon included spawning and growing ponds.

[Source: Wikipedia]

It is highly likely that these distinctive freshwater fish were already being referred to by a similar-sounding name to ‘carp’ in the region of the Danube River’s inland delta back in ancient times.

Wiktionary states that the English word ‘carp’ originated from Old French ‘carpe’, which in turn is from Late Latin/Vulgar Latin ‘carpa’, which itself probably ultimately derives from Gothic ‘*karpa’.  Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language spoken by the Goths.  Other attested forms include Middle Dutch ‘carpe’ and Old High German ‘karpfo’ or ‘karpho’.

But the ultimate origin is “unknown” or “unsettled”.

Recently I have been observing what I consider to be a considerable number of Chadic cognates within Indoeuropean languages (especially Italo-Celtic and Germanic, but others also, and non-Indoeuropean languages such as Basque).

A number of scholars have posited an Afroasiatic substrate within these languages; however previous research has focused more on Semitic or to a lesser degree Berber as possible sources for this, and Chadic has been generally overlooked.

Whether there is a Chadic substrate in western Indoeuropean languages [Italo-Celtic &/or Germanic &/or Slavic] remains to be seen [see also my earlier post: Where did the word ‘hand’ originate from?]

However something which really caught my attention recently is a common generic word for “fish” in West- and Central-Chadic languages (or Proto-Central Chadic):-

  • “*Kirop-”


  • “Kɨrɨp”

[Source:- “Central Chadic Reconstructions” – Richard Gravina (2014);  “Vocabulary of Water in Chadic” – Olga Stolbova (1997)]

In my opinion there is a strong resemblance between the Proto-Central Chadic word for fish and Gothic *karpa, but the likelihood is that nobody will investigate further or take the possibility even remotely seriously.

Above: Fishing in Lake Chad



Loanwords from African languages in the Basque language?

  • English———-Basque—————African Languages

  • Ditch————‘Zanga’————–‘Tsanya’ [Hausa]
  • Stone————‘Harri’—————‘Hayre’ [Fula]
  • Skin————-‘Larru’—————‘Larral’ [Fula]
  • Skin————-‘Larru’—————‘Ara’ [Yoruba]
  • True————-‘Egiazko’————-‘Gaskiya’ [Hausa]
  • Forgive———–‘Barka’————–‘Gbaghara’ [Igbo]
  • Snake————-‘Suge’—————‘Zoka’ [Zaramo]
  • Snake————-‘Suge’—————‘NZoka’ [Sukuma]
  • Snake————-‘Suge’————-‘InZoka’[Luhya,Kinyarwanda,Kirundi]
  • Bird—————‘Txori’—————‘Tsoli’ [Punu]
  • Bird—————‘Txori’—————‘Sholli’ [‘birds’ – Fula]
  • Twenty———–‘(H)ogei’————-‘Ugie’ [Edo]
  • Twenty———–‘(H)ogei’————-‘No:gay’ [Fula]
  • Twenty———–‘(H)ogei’————-‘Noogaj’ [Fula]
  • Meat————-‘(H)aragi’————‘Eran Jije’ [Yoruba]
  • Meat————-‘(H)aragi’————‘Arizh’ [Nubian]
  • Rope————-‘Soka’—————‘Sugey’ [Songhai]
  • Shout————‘(O)ihu’————–‘Ihu’ [Hausa]
  • Child————-‘Ume’————–‘Omo’ [Yoruba & Edo]
  • Knife————-‘Labana’————‘Labi’ [Fula]
  • Knife————-‘Labana’————‘Lobe’ [‘dagger’ – Yoruba]
  • Trap————–‘Lakirio’————‘Qrra’ [Tamazight Berber]
  • There————-‘Han’————–‘Lohun’ [Yoruba]
  • Ash—————‘Errau(ts)’———-‘Eeru’ [Yoruba]
  • We—————-‘Gu’————–‘Gu’,‘Ku’, [Kpelle]
  • We—————-‘Gu’————–‘Ku’ [Guro, Yaure]
  • Blood————–‘(O)dol’————‘Dyoli’ [Malinke, Dyula]
  • Blood————–‘(O)dol’————‘Dyolo’ [Bolo]
  • Seed—————‘(H)azi’————‘Sii’ [Mandinka]
  • Seed—————‘(H)azi’————‘Si’ [Khassonke, Malinke, Bambara]
  • Knee—————‘Bel(h)aun’———‘Kum-balin’ [Khassonke]
  • Knee—————‘Bel(h)aun’———‘Kum-balino’ [Mandinka]
  • Arrow————–‘Gezi’————–‘Bine-kise’ [Bambara]
  • Arrow—————‘Gezi’————–‘kèsé’/’kese’/’kēsé’[Baraïn, E.Chadic]
  • I——————-‘Ni’—————‘Nii’ [Hausa]
  • Red—————–‘Gorri’————‘Cirey’ [Songhai]
  • Mud—————-‘Loka(tz)’———-‘Laka’ [Hausa]
  • Foot—————-‘(H)oin’———–‘Koyn-gal’ [Fula]
  • Wind—————‘(H)aize’———-‘Azwu’ [Tamazight Berber]
  • Wind—————‘(H)aize’———-‘Ess-i’ [Nubian]
  • Black—————‘Bel(tz)’———–‘Bal-ejum’ [Fula]
  • Meal—————-‘Baskari’———-‘Gari’ [Hausa]
  • Two—————–‘Bi’————–‘Biyu’ [Hausa]
  • Jump—————-‘Salto’———–‘Tsalle’ [Hausa]
  • Menstruation, period—‘Hileko’———-‘Haila’ [Hausa]
  • Short—————-‘(La)bur’———‘Obere’ [Igbo]
  • Cloud—————-‘Hodei’———-‘Gude’ [Yoruba]
  • Cloud—————-‘Hodei’———-‘Kuiti’ & ‘Kidi’ [Tedaga]
  • Lobster————–‘(O)tarraina’——-‘Ndeerindeerino’ [Mandinka]
  • Shrimp————–‘(O)tarrainska’—–‘Ndeerindeerino’ [Mandinka]
  • Hoof—————-‘Apatxhari’——–‘Patako’ [Yoruba]
  • Woman————–‘Emakumea’——‘Kamu’ [Kanuri]
  • Old——————‘Zahar’———-‘Tsoho’ [Hausa]
  • Town—————-‘Hiri’,‘Herri’——‘Gari’ [Hausa]
  • Wife—————–‘Emazte’———‘Mata’ [Hausa]
  • Fish—————–‘Arrain’———‘Hari’ [Songhai]
  • Rain—————–‘Euri’————‘Are’, ‘Ari’ [Nubian]
  • Bark—————–‘Azal’———–‘Azi’ [Nubian]
  • Foot——————‘(H)oin’———‘O:y’ [Nubian]
  • Round—————-‘Biribil’———‘Obirikiti’ [Yoruba]
  • And——————‘Eta’————‘Ati’ [Yoruba]
  • Dog——————‘Txakur’———‘Kare’ [Hausa]
  • Leg——————‘Hanka’———-‘Tanka’ [Wolof]
  • Chief—————–‘Buru-zagi’——-‘Sarki’ [Hausa]
  • Yawn—————–‘Aharrausi’——-‘Uhere’ [Igbo]
  • [Water] Spring———‘Iturburu’——–‘Asuburu’ [Twi]
  • Bay——————-‘Badia’——–‘Baadaa’ [‘seaside’/’beach’ in Mandinka]
  • Elbow—————–‘Ukondo’——-‘Conco’ [Wolof]
  • Go——————–‘Jo[h]an’——-‘Jah-a’/‘Jan-a’ [Fula]
  • Earth, Ground———-‘Lur’———–‘Lo’ [Bobo]
  • Earth, Ground———-‘Lur’———–‘Lwoe’ [Kpelle]
  • Path, Way————-‘Bide’———-‘Beda’ [‘large road’ in Khassonke & Bambara]
  • Night—————–‘Gau’———–‘Gue’ [Bozo]
  • Name—————–‘Izen’———-‘Isem’ [Tuareg Berber]
  • To Lie Down————‘Etzan’———‘Ettes’ [‘sleep’ in Tuareg]
  • Wood(en)————-‘Zur-ezko’——‘(I)sarir’ [Tuareg]




Where did the word ‘hand’ originate from?

There are large numbers of words in European languages for which the ultimate origin is uncertain.  One such word is the English word ‘hand’.

In the sense of the body part which in English is known as the ‘hand’, both Wiktionary  and Online Etymology Dictionary both agree that it is derived from a hypothetical Proto-Germanic *handuz, but that ultimately it is “of uncertain origin”.


  • *handuz – (Proto-Germanic)

  • hand – (Old English, Middle English, English)

  • hant – (Old Dutch)

  • hand – (Dutch)

  • hand – (Old Frisian)

  • hân – (West Frisian)

  • hant – (Old High German)

  • hand – (German)

  • handus (Gothic)

  • hand – (Old Saxon)

  • hǫnd – (Old Norse)

  • haand – (Old Danish)

  • hånd – (Danish)

  • hand – (Swedish)

  • hånd – (Norwegian Bokmål)

  • hand – (Norwegian Nynorsk)

  • hond – (Faroese)

  • hönd – (Icelandic)

Given that we cannot find any obvious similar words in other Indo-European languages outside of the Germanic family, and Germanic is probably less than 3,000 years old, can any similar words be found in non-Indo-European languages which might be a potential original source for the word? (Assuming that it didn’t spontaneously appear out of nowhere in early Proto-Germanic).

Some scholars have suggested that fossilised within Indo-European languages such as Germanic there survives a non-Indo-European substrate (and they offer some evidence to support their assertion).

One such scholar is Theo Vennemann.  He claims that there is a Semitic substrate within Celtic and Germanic, for a number of different reasons (although his claims have been heavily criticised).

Is there a similar word to ‘hand’ in any of the surviving or extinct Semitic languages?  I couldn’t find one.  What about in any other languages outside of Indo-European and Semitic? Again, I couldn’t find one.

However, let’s return to Semitic.  Semitic is just one language group within a very broad family, the Afro-Asiatic group.  The age of Proto-Afro-Asiatic is considerably greater than Proto-Germanic or even Proto-Indo European, and isestimated on the basis of glottochronology by Diakonoff (a leading scholar on Afro-Asiatic) at 11,500 YBP (years-before-present).  Diakonoff believes that one of the earliest branches of Afro-Asiatic was Chadic.

When I looked at other Afro-Asiatic languages outside of Semitic, I found a word for ‘hand’ in Hausa (a major language from the Chadic group spoken in several countries but particularly in Northern Nigeria and Niger) which was remarkably similar:-

hánnúu‘ [which means both ‘hand’ and ‘arm’].

[The Chadic languages besides Hausa (which has 24 million speakers) are woefully under-studied, and I struggled to find information on these].


So is this word ‘hánnúu’ in Hausa, meaning ‘hand’, simply a derivation of an English loanword?  I went to The World Loanword Database (WOLD)  to have a look.  Ari Awagana and H. Ekkehard Wolff, together with Doris Löhr, have meticulously analysed 1452 words from the Hausa language, and have identified potential loanwords totalling 24% of the entire dataset, derived from diverse languages such as Arabic, various Berber dialects, French, English, Kanuri, Tubu, Songhay, Nilo-Saharan, Mande languages, Yoruba, Fulani, and others.  They do not consider ‘hánnúu’ to be a loanword into Hausa.

In my view, ‘hand’ in Germanic languages and ‘hánnúu’ [meaning ‘hand’] in Hausa/Chadic look too similar to not be related.  Serious scholars don’t consider ‘hánnúu’ to be a loanword in Hausa [which is likely to be true, given that it means both ‘hand’ AND ‘arm’ in Hausa, but only ‘hand’ in Germanic].

Proto-Chadic is estimated to be 3 – 4 times older than Proto-Germanic.  I suspect that the resemblance is NOT a coincidence, and that the Germanic word ‘hand’ might well have originated in Chadic.  If that is so, how did it jump from Northern Nigeria/Niger to Germany without leaving a trace in other Afro-Asiatic or Indo-European languages?

I don’t have a solid answer to this, and more research is required.

However, there are a few points worth considering.  The Neolithic Subpluvial, also known as the Holocene Wet Phase, was a period lasting from approximately 7500 years ago to approximately 3000 years ago during which the Sahara Desert was green and inhabited by humans, including early farmers.

When the Sahara dried out, these people would have been forced to either migrate south towards the Sahel, north towards the Mediterranean coast, east towards the River Nile, or west towards the Atlantic coast [or head for the remaining wet areas such as oases, the Niger River, or Lake Chad].  These migrations would have had a genetic, archaeological, and linguistic impact.

Secondly, there is evidence to suggest that there were subsequent prehistoric migrations from north Africa into southern Europe, which would also have had a cultural and genetic impact, however minor [and this in turn would have later had an influence further inland in Europe].

Thirdly, it is known that prior to Romans, Arabs, Phoenicians etc. the main languages spoken in Western North Africa would have been Berber languages.  Yet Berber languages do not appear to have had much impact in terms of influence on languages spoken in Southern Europe.  I believe that this is because, according to Austrian linguist Hans Mukarovsky, Berber languages only spread to the West of North Africa from approximately 4,000 years ago onwards, and other language groups such as Chadic, Mande, Songhay, etc. might have been spoken much further northwards prior to this [and this might also explain why I am seeing an influence from these languages on Basque and Celtic].

And finally, there are genetic links between Chad and Europe, in particular with Sardinia and Corsica but also with Basques, Southern French, and Southern Iberians [eg. Y-DNA haplogroup R1b R-V88 and haplogroup A, plus HLA haplotype A*30:01-B*18:01-C*05:01-DRB1*03:01-DQB1*02:01).  This might be a route via which Chadic languages could have entered Southern Europe in prehistory.  It is especially interesting in view of the fact that I am finding that there are many Hausa-like words in the Basque language, and Basques and Sardinians have the highest European frequencies of the Chadic HLA haplotype mentioned above.  In addition Sardinians are believed to have spoken a Basque-like, pre-Indo European language prior to the comparatively recent introduction of Latin.  Lastly, there is a 115 kilometre-long river in Sardinia called Coghinas, and Kogin is the Hausa word for ‘river’ [although this could of course be purely coincidental].

I plan to do some more research and will follow up this post again hopefully some time in the not too distant future.

Did Latin get it’s word for ‘frog’ from Chadic or Berber languages?


Taking a short break from looking at similarities between words in the Niger-Congo languages and Indo-European languages, today we uncover an intriguing relationship between the word for ‘frog’ in Afro-Asiatic languages [Hausa and Berber] and one Indo-European language [Latin, and the Romance languages which derive from it].  The influence is almost certainly northern Africa –> southern Europe and not vice-versa.


  • Hausa – ‘Rana

  • Tamazight Berber – ‘Jranna

  • Moroccan Arabic [with Berber substrate] – ‘Zraana‘ / ‘Graana‘ 

  • Somali – ‘Rah‘ / ‘Rihii

  • Oromo – ‘Raacha


  • Latin – ‘Rana‘ / ‘Ranae

  • Italian – ‘Rana

  • Spanish – ‘Rana

  • Asturian – ‘Rana

  • Catalan – ‘Granota

  • French – ‘Raine‘ / ‘Grenouille

  • Galician – ‘Ra

  • Portuguese – ‘Ra

What is a ‘Coracle’? And where did the name come from?



coracle ‎(plural coracles)

(nautical) A small, circular or oblong boat made of wickerwork and made watertight with hides or pitch, propelled and steered with a single paddle and light enough to be carried on a man’s back.

The coracle is a small, lightweight boat of the sort traditionally used in Wales but also
in parts of Western and South West England, Ireland (particularly the River Boyne), and Scotland (particularly the River Spey);[..] The word “coracle” comes from the Welsh cwrwgl, cognate with Irish and Scottish Gaelic currach, and is recorded in English as early as the sixteenth century. Other historical English spellings include corougle, corracle, curricle and coricle.

The name ‘coracle‘ in modern-day English probably derives from Welsh ‘corwgl‘, which in turn is derived from ‘corwg‘.  ‘Corwg‘ [cognate with Gaelic ‘curachan‘], is likely also the source of Middle English ‘currock‘.

The Welsh and Irish words themselves ultimately originated from Proto-Celtic *kur uko .

This reconstructed word takes us back in time to an unknown European location, perhaps as early as 800BCE.   But can we find any similar words or roots in existence which might provide a clue as to the word’s earlier origins [assuming that the word didn’t appear completely out of the blue in Wales/Ireland]?

An explanation given for the origin of ‘coracle‘ is that the name comes from the Latin word ‘corium‘, meaning “skin, hide, leather”; also related to ‘cortex’ [“bark”]; and ‘scortum’ [“skin, hide”], from a postulated Proto-Indo European root *(s)ker- [“to cut”].  Cognates include Sanskrit ‘krtih’ [“hide”]; Old Church Slavonic ‘scora’ [“skin”]; Russian ‘skora’ [“hide”]; ‘kora’ [“bark”]; Old English ‘sceran’ [“to cut, shear”].

However, a bit of investigation revealed that there were strikingly similar (or related) words for ‘canoe’ or ‘boat’ in some African languages:-

  • Twi – “Korow” & “ɔkorow” [“canoe”]

  • Yoruba – “kọ” [“canoe”; “boat”]

  • Yoruba – “kọ̀keré” [“boat”]

  • Edo – “Oko” [“canoe”]

  • Bambara – “kurun” [“canoe, small boat”]

  • Yeyi – “Mokoro” [“dugout canoe”]

  • Mandinka – “kuluŋo

  • Central Kanuri – “kòlékòlé

  • Songhai – “KoleKole

  • Hausa – “Kwale Kwale

  • Wolof – “Gaal


No doubt there are numerous other examples.

Having found these, I was struck by the resemblance between those examples of African words for boat or canoe which possess ‘kor‘ or ‘kur‘ roots, and the Proto-Celtic word for boat, *kuruko .

But then something else caught my attention:-

  • Slovenian – “čoln” [“boat”]

  • Czech – “člun” [“boat”]

  • Slovak – “čln” [“boat”]

  • Russian – “čoln” [“boat, canoe, dugout (usually hollowed out of a single log)”]

  • Polish – “czółno” [“dugout, a boat made from a hollowed tree trunk”]

The Slavic examples above are also reminiscent of the African words for boat/canoe/dugout which possess the kol / kul root, *especially* “kuluŋo” from Mandinka.

And then a brief look at a variety of African words for ‘bark’, ‘skin’, ‘cut’, ‘leather’, ‘tree’, and ‘weaver’ revealed similar words also:-

  • The verb ‘gor’ in Wolof means “to cut down” [for example, a tree];

  • The words for “skin/hide” are ‘kuuru’ in Songhai and ‘Kulu’ in Mandinka

In my view this is a genuine connection between some very old European and African boat terminology, and should be investigated further.  It is worth bearing in mind that thousands of years ago, the Sahara desert was a lush green environment which supported human populations, and Lake Chad was many times larger than it is today.  The world’s oldest dugout canoes found to date have been in Africa (Chad Basin, northern Nigeria) and Europe (the Netherlands), at 8000 years old and 10000 years old, respectively.  Is it possible that humans entered Europe from Africa in prehistory and brought their words for boat with them?